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E-ISSN 2348-1269, P- ISSN 2349-5138 | ESTD Year: 2014

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Division of India; Indian and Pakistan Independent Dimensions – An overview

  Authors

  Nagaratna.B.Tamminal

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  Abstract


Present paper takes a broad overview of independence on Indian subcontinent particularly India and Pakistan in their subsequent post independence dimensions. In August, 1947, when, after three hundred years in India, the British finally left, the subcontinent was partitioned into two independent nation states: Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. Immediately, there began one of the greatest migrations in human history, as millions of Muslims trekked to West and East Pakistan (the latter now known as Bangladesh) while millions of Hindus and Sikhs headed in the opposite direction. Many hundreds of thousands never made it.Across the Indian subcontinent, communities that had coexisted for almost a millennium attacked each other in a terrifying outbreak of sectarian violence, with Hindus and Sikhs on one side and Muslims on the other—a mutual genocide as unexpected as it was unprecedented. In Punjab and Bengal—provinces abutting India’s borders with West and East Pakistan, respectively—the carnage was especially intense, with massacres, arson, forced conversions, mass abductions, and savage sexual violence. Some seventy-five thousand women were raped, and many of them were then disfigured or dismembered. Nisid Hajari, in “Midnight’s Furies” (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt), his fast-paced new narrative history of Partition and its aftermath, writes, “Gangs of killers set whole villages aflame, hacking to death men and children and the aged while carrying off young women to be raped. Some British soldiers and journalists who had witnessed the Nazi death camps claimed Partition’s brutalities were worse: pregnant women had their breasts cut off and babies hacked out of their bellies; infants were found literally roasted on spits.” By 1948, as the great migration drew to a close, more than fifteen million people had been uprooted, and between one and two million were dead. The comparison with the death camps is not so far-fetched as it may seem. Partition is central to modern identity in the Indian subcontinent, as the Holocaust is to identity among Jews, branded painfully onto the regional consciousness by memories of almost unimaginable violence. The acclaimed Pakistani historian Ayesha Jalal has called Partition “the central historical event in twentieth century South Asia.” She writes, “A defining moment that is neither beginning nor end, partition continues to influence how the peoples and states of postcolonial South Asia envisage their past, present and future.” After the Second World War, Britain simply no longer had the resources with which to control its greatest imperial asset, and its exit from India was messy, hasty, and clumsily improvised. From the vantage point of the retreating colonizers, however, it was in one way fairly successful.

  Cite this article

  Nagaratna.B.Tamminal,   "Division of India; Indian and Pakistan Independent Dimensions – An overview", IJRAR - International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR), E-ISSN 2348-1269, P- ISSN 2349-5138, Volume.7, Issue 2, Page No pp.795-803, April 2020, Available at : http://www.ijrar.org/IJRAR19D1375.pdf  

  IJRAR's Publication Details

  Unique Identification Number - IJRAR19D1375

  Paper ID - 222370

  Page Number(s) - 795-803

  Pubished in - Volume 7 | Issue 2 | April 2020

  DOI (Digital Object Identifier) -   

  Publisher Name - IJRAR | www.ijrar.org | E-ISSN 2348-1269, P- ISSN 2349-5138

  E-ISSN 2348-1269, P- ISSN 2349-5138

  Cite this article

  Nagaratna.B.Tamminal,   "Division of India; Indian and Pakistan Independent Dimensions – An overview", IJRAR - International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR), E-ISSN 2348-1269, P- ISSN 2349-5138, Volume.7, Issue 2, Page No pp.795-803, April 2020, Available at : http://www.ijrar.org/IJRAR19D1375.pdf

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